暨南大学研究生院(暨南大学研究生院官网)




暨南大学研究生院,暨南大学研究生院官网

近日,暨南大学-善百年先端食品联合研究院在行业期刊《中国油脂》发表论文,题为《甘油二酯的代谢机制及营养功能特性研究进展》。

该论文介绍了甘油二酯的代谢途径以及主要的营养功能,汇总整理甘油二酯功效证实的临床实验及动物实验文献,为甘油二酯作为新型健康油脂的应用提供了理论基础。

《中国油脂》创刊于1976年,月刊,是由中华人民共和国国家粮食局主管、国家粮食储备局西安油脂科学研究设计院主办的科技期刊。

什么是甘油二酯?

甘油二酯(Diacylglycerol, DAG)是天然油脂的微量成分及人体内代谢的中间产物,膳食DAG可减少脂肪积累,降低血脂水平,预防心脑血管疾病,如动脉硬化、冠心病、中风、脑血栓、肥胖和脂肪肝等[1]。

《甘油二酯的代谢机制及营养功能特性研究进展》

这是目前较为权威详尽的甘油二酯论文,总结了甘油二酯代谢机制,并整理了甘油二酯功效的相关文献,为其应用提供了有力支撑。

甘油二酯的代谢机制

油脂在进入人体后经过口腔、胃和小肠完成消化分解,小肠是油脂消化吸收的主要场所,油脂70%-90%的消化吸收都是在小肠完成[2].

甘油三酯的代谢途径

传统食用油富含甘油三酯,膳食后在小肠中会通过胰脂肪酶分解为单甘酯与游离脂肪酸,而单甘酯在进入肠上皮细胞后重新合成甘油三酯,最终作为脂肪存储在肝脏或者其他脂肪组织中。甘油三酯的代谢途径见图1所示。

甘油二酯的代谢途径

膳食甘油二酯后,由于甘油二酯对合成甘油三酯相关酶的敏感度低,几乎不再重新合成甘油三酯,而是直接通过门静脉进入肝脏进行氧化分解,避免了甘油三酯的产生,进一步减少了脂肪堆积。

甘油二酯的代谢途径见图1及图2所示

甘油二酯的健康功能调节机制

摄入富含甘油三酯的食用油后,甘油三酯易储存在脂肪组织中而引起肥胖等一系列问题,导致血脂的增加、胆固醇升高等一系列不良影响。

摄入甘油二酯油后,甘油二酯抑制了脂肪酸合成酶的活性,上调了脂质β-氧化速率,进而调控脂肪代谢。甘油二酯主要营养功能见图3所示。

抑制体重增加

甘油二酯的摄入可以显著降低体重、腰围及 BMI 值,降低收缩压和舒张压的功能[3],并且可以减少皮肤褶皱厚度。甘油二酯对抑制体重增加的功效见表1所示。

降低内脏脂肪含量

在内脏脂肪面积、脂肪量较大的超重人群中,摄入甘油二酯后减重效果更加显著[31],腹腔脂肪及肝脏脂肪也显著下降[29,6]。甘油二酯对降低内脏脂肪含量的功效见表2所示。

调节血糖

长期摄入甘油二酯可以显著降低血清胰岛素含量[19,8,23]。甘油二酯有效降低了 HOMA-IR 指数,改善了胰岛素抵抗[3]。甘油二酯对调节血糖的功效见表3所示。

降低血脂

在健康人群中,甘油二酯有效降低血脂浓度;在超重人群中,甘油二酯可以有效控制血脂浓度和甘油三酯乳糜微粒上升幅度。甘油二酯对降低血脂的功效见表4所示。

降低餐后血清甘油三酯

研究发现,摄入少量的甘油二酯后,效果显著。随着每天连续摄入甘油二酯,血清甘油三酯浓度持续下降,体内脂肪分解速度加快。因此,长期食用甘油二酯可以更好地发挥功效作用,降低体内脂肪积累,改善代谢和心血管疾病的发生风险。

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